Directions: Answer the following questions below using only the…Directions: Answer the following questions below using only the textbook information or one of the extra fact sections. You will find the answers in either the textbook information or in one of the extra facts sections. I would prefer if you gave me the part where you got the answer from. . Textbook information and extra facts sections are under the questionsQuestions: 1. How is the Ras Lila different than the Lavani? 2. Why was the Thabal Chongba important socialy? 3. How does musical fame in India differ from fame in the United States?4. Why did the C nese government ban Mo Li Hau? 5. What is the difference between a person wearing w te in Western culture, and a person in w te in C na? 6. What is the difference between Cantopop and Mandopop?7. Where did Korea get most of their musical culture? What evidence supports t s theory? 8. What is South Korea’s #1 Cultural Heritage, and what is it used for? 9. What does the United States military have to do with K-Pop? 10. Why have the Wonder Girls not had the same success in the United States as they enjoyed in Korea? 11. What is the Japanese word for music, and what does it mean? 12. Why did the term Min’yo come into use, and what is the most famous Min’yo song? 13. What is Japan’s oldest performing art, and how do you become a performer of it? 14. How is J-Pop different from Kayokyoku? 15. What is Manikay used for? 16. Why did Classical Music not come to Australia until the late 1800s? 17. How did Olivia Newton John become an international star? 18. What is the difference between the Haka and the Waiata? 19. How did Bagpipes and Brass Bands make it to New Zealand? 20. What sets Tiki Taane’s music apart from that of Lorde or Kimbra? 21. What makes the Guitarron and the Vihuela different from a guitar? 22. What are Mariac Bands known for? 23. How have Los TIgres de Norte remained relevant after over 50 years of performing? 24. How is Banda different from Norteño? 25. Why is the Qilaut important in Inuit culture? 26. Why did women sing Katajjaq and how do you win? 27. What is the band Rush known for?28. What is the United States nickname, and what does it have to do with the music found here? 29. How did Jazz develop? 30. What is Leitmotif, and how does John Williams use it?Textbook Information: India: With over 1.2 billion people, India is the second most populous county in the world. A land full of diverse cultures, India is known for their silks, tea, and cotton, their arc tecture – most famous being the Taj Mahal, and their complex social system called the Caste System. Made famous by Ravi Shankar, the Sitar can have 21, 22, or even 23 strings. Played along with the Sitar, the Tabla are a pair of hand drums similar to the Bongos of the Caribbean. A popular instrument amongst tourists, the Pungi, a dried gourd with two bamboo pipes attached, and instrument made famous by snake charmers.Traditional Music: Traditional music in India varies greatly depending on Which part of the country you are in. In the west, as an effort to bolster the morale of troops, female singers would sing and dance Lavani – a folk music and dance that was a combination of erotic themes with humorous socio-political satire.. On the far east of the country, the State of Manipur is famous for their delicate, lyrical dancing. Based in religion and aimed at spiritual enlightenment, the Ras Lila is one of the most sacred forms of dance, and has simple, restrained movements – the feet do not t the ground hard like with the Lavani. W le most of their dance is focused on spiritual matters, the Manipuri have a unique folk tradition associated with the Indian holiday of Holi Literally meaning “Moonlight Dance” the Thabal Chongba is danced by young men and women who hold hands and dance in a ring around a central bonfire. T s night of celebration was very important to the youth, as Manipuri parents did not allow their daughters to go out and meet young men without their consent. Classical Music: India has one of the longest stories of classical music in the world. In the north, ancient ndu musical traditions mixed with the Middle Eastern sounds coming from Persia to create ndustani, one of the two main styles of Classical Music. W le it can be solely instrumental, ndustani is traditionally choral based (that would be the Persian tradition…remember the guy with the mustache?) Singers use scales called Ragas to create two-part melodies hat begin with the “Alap” an improvisatory presentation of the melody with embellishment, followed by the “Bandish,” a strict composition accompanied by a tabla. Parveen Sultana, known as Queen of the Classic Vocal, began performing at age 12, and has not only performed and recorded classical Indian music, but also sings for Indian movies. Considered to be one of the gifts bestowed to man by the gods, Carnatic music from the south of India is one of the oldest forms of music in existence. As with ndustani, improvisation is central to Carnatic music, and there are numerous ragas (72 in fact) as well as 7 unique rhythmic cycles called Talas for performers to choose from. Audiences attending Carnatic concerts are expected to have a basic understanding of the music in order to follow along with what is going on.Popular Music: Known as “Bollywood,” the Indian Film industry overtook the United States as the world’s largest film producer in the 1970s. The music from these films, known as Filmi, has grown in popularity throughout the years, until today it makes up 72% of all music sales in India. W le in the United States fame is given to the artists who perform the songs, in India the songwriters receive most of the acclaim. Composer A.R. Rahman was described by Time Magazine as the World’s most prominent and prolific composer. In 20 years Rahman has composed music for 124 movies – by comparison John Williams, the American film composer, has composed music for 99 films in 54 years .Extra FactsOnly 6 charming snakes. or 7 of the more than 20 strings on the Sitar are played, the rest are “sympathetic strings” that vibrate along.The Tabla allow the performer to change pitch by pressing on the drumhead with the palm. Playing the Pungi is believed to be a way to communicate with the Gods, as well as Only 6 charming snakes.Because of the sexual nature of the Lavani, it remains a popular style of music today.The Thabla Chongba was one of the only opportunities for boys and girls to interact without their parents involved.The Ras Lila is characterized by its colorful costumes, including the recognizable round skirt.Parveen Sultana is known as a Guru, or master, of ndustani music.Filmi, the music from Bollywood movies, is famous for its singing and dancing.A.R. Rahman, won two Academy Awards in 2008 for s music to the movie Slumdog Millionaire.C na: Second largest in area, and largest in population, The People’s Republic of C na is greatly famed for its impressive culture Which can be seen in their literature, art, p losophy, martial arts, arc tecture, and has a musical tradition dating back to the dawn of C nese civilization with artifacts showing a well developed musical tradition as early as 1100 BC. British traders arrived in the 1800’s and opened up trade routes that brought C nese goods throughout the western world.According to C nese mythology, Ling Lun founded music in C na when he created 5 bamboo flutes that mimicked the sounds of birds. These 5 notes form the ancient C nese scale – equivalent to playing only the 5 black notes on a piano. Associated with the p losopher Confucius and called “The Father of C nese Music” and “the instrument of the sages,” the Guqin is a seven string plucked instrument similar to the modern slide guitar. The Erhu, the inspiration for the Saudi Arabian Rebaba, is unique in the fact that the bow is permanently attached between the two strings and that there is not fingerboard, the player changes notes simply by touc ng the string.Traditional Music: With a musical tradition as old and diverse as C na’s it would take an entire course to discuss all of the different styles that can be found. However two specific folk traditions have come to represent C na to the rest of the world. Mo Li Hau, Which translated means “Jasmine Flower,” gained popularity throughout C na as early as the 1700’s. In 2011 Pro-Democracy demonstrators (called the Jasmine Revolution) used Mo Li Hau as their anthem. T s had led to the Communist government banning all online video and recordings. The most famous C nese folk music is closely associated with the celebration of the C nese New Year. The Dragon Dance comes in two forms, one is performed by a team of dancers who manipulate an image of a C nese dragon on long wooden poles, the other has performers inside a large dragon costume, performing acrobatic leaps and tricks.Classical Music: With roots going back to the 3rd century, C nese Opera has been an important form of art music in C na for thousands of years. W le it is similar to European Opera in the fact that they both tell a story through music, the similarity ends there. C nese Opera has a very distinct style of singing, and is based on the The Guqin is the most revered of all C nese instruments. The Erhu has a small sound box covered in python skin, t s creates its unique sound. One of the forms of Dragon Dance has the performers outside the dragon, the other has them inside. Guqin performance by Tao Chu-Shen. Erhu performance by Qi Xiaochun. 2009 “Mo Li Hau” performed by Song Zuying. 2002 Dragon Dance performed by Hong Kong Lion Dance. 2007 Dragon Dance performed by Cheng Jing Hui. 2002 193 Unit 3-4 traditional 5 note C nese scale. Each region of C na developed their own particular style, so there is many unique styles, though the Beijing and Sichuan styles are the best known. One unifying aspect of all C nese Opera is the use of colored masks to represent character traits. In Western culture, a person in w te usually symbolizes the hero of the story. In C nese culture a w te is usually the villain, and the hero wears red. In the Sichuan style these color masks are the stars of the show as performers change them in the blink of an eye in the style known as Bian Lian.Popular Music: Do to the complex political nature of C na; most C-Pop comes from either Hong Kong (a city-state once controlled by Great Britain, but now part of C na) or Taiwan (a country that C na still claims as theirs.) Music coming out of Hong Kong is almost always sung in Cantonese, giving it the name Cantopop. The first artist to ac eve international fame was Anita Mui, who was called the “Madonna of Asia,” because of her provocative dancing. Anita’s career would be cut short however, when in 2003 she was diagnosed with and succumbed to cervical cancer. Stepping into the void left by Anita’s death, Joey Yung has established herself as the most popular Cantopop artist, winning most of the major awards since 2010. Music coming out of Taiwan is almost always sung in Mandarin, giving it the name Mandopop. For the past 12 years, Jay Chou has been writing, performing, and producing s own music, and is not only a widely popular singer, but also a very successful actor and author as well.Extra Facts: The Guqin is the most revered of all C nese instruments.The Erhu has a small sound box covered in python skin, t s creates its unique sound.One of the forms of Dragon Dance has the performers outside the dragon, the other has them inside.Every color in Bian Lian represents a character trait. Black: Integrity/ Impartiality Blue: Loyalty/ Stubbornness Gold: Mysterious/ Aloof Green: Impulsive/ Violent Purple: Justice/ Sop stication Red: Courage/ Intelligence W te: Evil/ Crafty/ Sinister Yellow: Ambitious/ CruelJay Chou made s Hollywood debut playing Kato in the 2011 film The Green Hornet.Anita Mui won so many awards in the 1980’s that she asked to no longer be nominated so that others could have a chanceSouth Korea: In ancient times the Korean peninsula was separated into three kingdoms, and most of Korea’s musical developments came about during t s period, when each kingdom established Royal Institutions of music. C na had great influence over the music in Korea, and t s influence can be seen in Korea’s instruments. In the 6th century an envoy from C na was visiting King Gasil. When the King noticed a C nese musician playing the Guqin, he ordered one of s musicians to make an instrument just like it. The end product was the Gayageum, one of the best-known traditional Korean instruments. The Haegeum, another widely used instrument in Korean music, was also most likely copied, as it looks suspiciously like the C nese Erhu, and Korea’s most common wind instrument, the Piri, is a smaller version of the C nese Guan.Traditional Music: Because it was once three separate kingdoms, folk music in Korea is widely varied, though all of the different forms follow a specific set of rhythms called Changdan. Popular throughout Korea in the 19th century, and popular today with tourists, Pansori is performed by singers and a single drummer. The drummer keeps a beat, w le the singers recites a tale of love and romance. These tales are incredibly long, lasting up to eight hours, so performances today only include a portion of the story. Traditionally danced by women, the Geommu is a sword dance commemorating the daring assassination of the King of Baekji by the boy Hwangchang.Classical Music: Art music in Korea begins with the establishment of the Three Kingdoms Period, when each court established musicians to perform music for their entertainment. W le there were originally three forms of Korean court music (Aak, Dang-ak, and Hyang-ak), Hyang-ak became the most popular, and remains the traditional art music seen frequently in Korea today. The most rare form of Korean art music is the Jongmyo Jerye-ak. T s music is performed only once a year, on the first Sunday in May during the ancestral rites ceremony wors ping the spirits of deceased ancestors and the ancient kings and queens. Popular Music: Because of the large US presence in South Korea (the United States has been ing South Korea defend themselves against North Korea for the last 60 years) American pop music has had a profound influence on pop music in South Korea. In 1995 the talent agency S.M. Entertainment, hoping to copy the popularity of American boy bands like Backstreet Boys and N’Sync, launched a number of boy and girl bands and ushered in the age of “K-Pop.” K-Pop was introduced into the mainstream music culture when MTV decided to produce a program chronicling the lives of Asian pop stars. The female group Wonder Girls – formed by the talent agency JYP Entertainment – were chosen and given international exposure unheard of for a K-Pop group.Extra Facts: W le the Guqin has only 7 strings, the Gayageum can have between 12 and 21.The Haegeum has shorter and t cker strings than the Erhu.The Piri is small, but its large reed makes it play surprisingly loud.Of the 12 original Pansori tales, only 5 are still known, the rest have been forgotten.Geommu is known for its elaborate costumes and graceful sword movements.Jongmyo Jerye-ak is considered South Korea’s #1 cultural property, and is a registered UNESCO masterpiece.Girls Generation and 2Ne1 are two of the most popular K-Pop groups today.The Wonder Girls moved to the United States in 2012, but due to the decrease in the popularity of girl bands in America, they have failed to have the same impact as they did in Korea.Japan:Being an island has kept Japan isolated from the rest of the world for much of their story, and has ed Japan develop their own unique culture. The word for music in Japanese is ?? (ongaku) Which combines the two words “sound” and “fun.” Music has always played an important roll in Japan whether it was singing w le working in the fields, or music for the imperial court. Today Japanese people are famous for their karaoke bars where amateur singers sing along to recorded tracks of their favorite songs. Commonly found in both folk and modern music, the Shamisen is a three-stringed instrument similar to a guitar that is played by a pick. The term Taiko can be used to describe any type of drum in Japan, but it is usually referring to the large dual sided drums that Japan is most famous for.Traditional Music: Before the 20th century all songs in Japan were simply called “uta” (Song). With the arrival of Western music, a new word -Min’yo – was created to describe the traditional Japanese folk song and keep them separated from new songs from the West. Min’yo music was very diverse, some being for working, some for dancing, and some for religious rituals, and could either be sung by itself, or be accompanied by the Sangen. The most famous Min’yo “Sakura Sakura,” a song about the advent of spring and the blossoming of the cherry trees, has come to be synonymous with Japan.Classical Music: In 589 an official delegation from Japan traveled to C na to learn about their culture. They returned with a style of art-music that they called Gagaku. Performed on a variety of wind, string and percussion instruments, Gagaku music, like music from C na, is based on a 5 note scale that they call the “yo scale.” Being a Gagaku musician was a hereditary profession, meaning that it was passed down from father to son. With the arrival of Western ideas came also Western Classical Music and instruments. Japan has embraced t s tradition, and students study music with the same degree of intensity of study as they give to other subjects. Japanese bands and orchestras have won numerous awards worldwide, and their public school system frequently amazes Western musicians with their gh level of skill.Popular Music: With the rise of the Beatles in the 1960’s, Japan began producing their own form of Western pop music known as Kayokyoku. Combining traditional Japanese scales with the sounds of the West, performers such as Kyu Sakamoto established a Japanese for of Pop music. In the early 1990’s artists began moving even more towards Western music, from adopting Western scales and melodies to even changing the pronunciation of Japanese words to mimic English. Because of the change toward Western pop music, the Japanese coined the term J-Pop to distinguish it from the earlier more Japanese based pop music. Known as the “Empress of Pop” because of her widespread popularity throughout Asia Ayumi Hamasaki has sold over 53 million albums since 1999, making her one of the best selling Japanese artists of all time. She holds the Japanese record for most #1 singles, most #1 albums, and is the only artist to ever have 4 albums simultaneously in the Top 10. Particularly successful in the United States, Ami Onuki and Yumi Yos mura have been performing as the duo PUFFY since 1996. With 13 albums and multiple #1 ts, PUFFY has toured all throughout the world, and even have their own animated cartoon series on Cartoon Network.Extra Facts: The pick – called Bac – used with the Shamisen is much larger than the standard guitar pick.The movement of the performer is just as important in Taiko as actually striking the drum. In 1912 Japan donated over 3000 trees to be planted in Was ngton D.C. commemorated every year at the National Cherry Blossom Festival.Like Jongmyo Jerye-ak in Korea, Gagaku, as Japan’s oldest performing art, is considered a UNESCO masterpiece.Kyu Sakamoto’s 1963 t “Sukiyaki” remains the only Japanese song to ever t #1 in the United States.Ayumi Hamasaki is the first Japanese artist to have a #1 album for 13 straight years.Because of legal conflicts with Sean Combs, in the United States Ami and Yumi use the name Puffy AmiYumi.Australia: Great Britain claimed Australia in 1770 in part to with the overcrowding of jails at home. At that time the British court system used a punishment called Penal Transportation to deal with persons convicted of crimes. Any offense, from severe to petty could receive a sentence to be relocated to a penal colony. Great Britain’s original penal colonies were located in the Americas, but following the formation of the United States of America, Great Britain needed a new penal colony to send their prisoners. The first permanent European settlement in Australia was the British penal colony established in New South Wales in 1778.By the time Europeans arrived Australia had been populated for thousands of years by the Aborigine people, who give us some of Australia’s best-known instruments. Made from the trunk of a Eucalyptus tree, the Didgeridoo can be up to 10 feet long, though most are measured at around four feet. Played by vibrating your lips like a trumpet or trombone, the didgeridoo produces a very distinct drone sound that performers then embellish with vocalizations (usually sounds mimicking the kangaroo or the kookaburra) through the instrument. Accompanying the didgeridoo is usually a pair of sticks called Clapsticks. Unlike drumsticks, Which are used to strike a drum, clapsticks are designed more like claves in that they are designed to t one another.Traditional Music: Aboriginal folk songs, Which are known by many names depending on Which tribe you are dealing with; here we will use the term Manikay, deal with Dreamtime – the totemic spirits creation of the world. The manikay are sung for all range of social functions, whether it is a formal ceremony or an impromptu singalong following a dinner with friends. The dances that go along with the Manikay, known as Wungubal, are typically very lively with lots of jumps and imitations of animals. As more Europeans moved to Australia throughout the 1800’s, they brought their folk music traditions with them. Singing about the loneliness of the outback and other aspects of Australian life, t s new folk music, called Bush Music, remains popular in Australia to t s day, with the Bush Song “Waltzing Matilda” often being called Australia’s unofficial national anthem.Classical Music: Due to the fact that the first European residents of Australia were convicts who did not have a long story of classical music, orchestras and choral societies were not founded in Australia until the late 1800’s. These first groups performed music primarily from Great Britain, particularly the music from Gustav Holst and Ralph Vaughn Williams that was based on English Folk Music. As classical music has became more prevalent one building, The Sydney Opera House, has come to represent Classical Music in Australia. The most famous classical musician from Australia, Percy Grainger moved to London to start s career as a concert pianist. A socialite named Lillith Lowrey arranged performances and funding for Grainger, including performances for Queen Alexandria. As s fame continued to grow Grainger began to compose s own pieces based on folk songs, most famous being Country Gardens, and Lincolns re Posy. Popular Music: W le popular music in Australia was usually s pped in from England and the United States famous Australian groups like The Bee Gees and AC/DC reached international stardom in the late 1970’s. As the Bee Gees were transforming the world of disco, a relatively unknown Australian artist burst onto the American Music scene by staring in musical t Grease in 1978. Olivia Newton John had been popular in Australia since the early 1970’s but it was her breakout performance with John Travolta in the movie Grease that brought her international fame. In recent years Australia has produced a number of artists who have received significant international airplay. Amethyst Kelly, better known as Iggy Azalea, left Australia when she was 16 and moved to the United States to pursue a music career. W le you may not recognize her name or her face, Sia Furler is an Australian pop artist whose voice you will recognize. In addition to her own solo career she has collaborated with Flo Rida and David Guetta on two singles in the past year.Extra Facts: Didgeridoo players use a style of breat ng called “circular breat ng” Which allows them to play a continuous sound for over 30 minutes.Clapsticks can come in a variety of shapes and sizes, the most common are flat on two sides.Aboriginal performers mimic the movement of birds as they dance the WungubalThe Sydney Opera House is one of the most recognizable buildings in the world. Lilith Lowery arranged performances for Percy Grainger in exchange for sexual favors.Olivia Newton John’s transformation from “Good Girl Sandy,” to “Spandex Sandy” in the movie Grease transformed her career as well.New Zealand: The Maori people did not settle New Zealand until 1250 AD – it is 600 miles from any other landmass – making it one of the last lands in the world to be inhabited by humans. Europeans first arrived in 1642, but were immediately attacked by the Maori T s hostility kept Europeans from revisiting the island for 125 years, when European s ps, particularly whaling s ps began visiting the island to resupply their vessels and trade. The music of New Zealand is rooted in Maori traditions, as well as the music brought by European immigrants. Maori musical instruments, known as Taonga puoro, were used for story telling, entertainment, and even communication. Used to summon rain and communicate over long distances the Purerehua is a blade shaped piece of wood, bone, or stone attached to a chord and swung around the head. Combining a conch shell with a wooden mouthpiece, the Putatara is a type of trumpet capable of producing a wide range of pitches.Traditional Music: Traditional Maori music was microtonal and it would be very difficult for our ears to hear the differences in pitches. The arrival of European immigrants also signaled the arrival of Christian missionaries, who introduced harmony and changed Maori singing. Today competitions of traditional Maori music are a major event in New Zealand. These presentations combine traditional Maori song and dance called Waiata with the Haka, a traditional Maori war cry and dance. The Waiata features the women in the front of the ensemble dancing and twirling balls known as Poi. Characterized by aggressive stomping and slapping, as well as showing of the tongue and w tes of the eyes, Maori warriors traditionally performed the Haka before battle to intimidate their opponents. Today it is performed by both men and women and is used in a variety of situations, from the popular national competitions to official government ceremonies. Classical Music: New Zealand’s British heritage is evident in their classical music. Bagpipes are usually associated with Scotland, however New Zealand claims to have more bagpipe bands than any other country, including Scotland Bagpipe bands in New Zealand started with the Scottish military regiments sent by the British to their new colony in the early 19th century, and began to spread to the local militias organized by the civilian settlers. These bagpipe bands can be seen during parades and at special concert called a Tattoo. In 1861 gold was discovered in southern New Zealand, leading to a huge influx of English immigrants eager to strike it rich. Like the Scottish soldiers, these English settlers brought their music traditions with them, and soon the miners had organized brass bands to perform for their evening entertainment. As the gold dried up, the miners spread throughout the country looking for work, and spread the brass band tradition to other parts of the island. Popular Music: Pixie Williams recorded New Zealand’s first pop song, “Blue Smoke”, in 1949, but pop music didn’t really take off until 1960, when the technology of television finally made it to the islands. The arrival of TV in New Zealand coincided with the rise of The Beatles, and soon there were copycat bands throughout the country. Music in New Zealand has been dominated by the artist Tiki Taane, whose 2008 single “Always On My Mind” is the most successful song in New Zealand story. W le not always being a player on the international music stage, New Zealand won back to back Grammy awards in 2013 and 2014, first with Kimbra for her part in Gotye’s “Somebody That I Used to Know,” and then Lorde with “Royals.”Extra Facts: The size of the conch shell used in the Putatara increased your social standing, the bigger the better.The Purerehua was used by the Maori people to attract a sol mate.Women feature in the Waiata, singing, dancing and spinning poi balls. The All-Blacks, New Zealand’s National Rugby team, still use the Haka for its intended purpose, performing it before every match to intimidate their opponents.Bagpipe bands can be seen at special military parades called Tattoo’sThe Wellington Brass Band were the winners of the 2014 National Brass Band Champions ps.As a Maori, Tiki Taane often includes traditional Maori music and mythology in s music.At 17years old, Lorde is the youngest artist ever to be nominated for Record of the Year.Mexico: Prior to the arrival of Columbus in the New World, Mexico was home to many advanced civilizations, such as the Olmec, the Toltec, the Maya, and the Aztec. In 1521 the Spanish conquistador Hernan Cortes defeated the Aztecs at the Battle of Tenochtitlan (now Mexico City) bringing Mexico under Spanish control, until they were granted independence in 1821. Music in Mexico has its roots in the traditional music of the indigenous peoples mixed with the forms and styles of Spain. A large country, Mexico has a large number of distinctive styles of traditional music known as Son; Son Huasteco, Son Jarocho, and Son Jaliscience to name a few. Instruments in Mexico developed from the instruments brought by settlers from Spain. The Guitarron is a very large deep-bodied 6-string acoustic bass that, paired with the Vihuela – a small 5-string deep-bodied instrument similar to the Venezuelian Tiple – make up the core of a Mexican Mariac Band.Traditional Music: Traditional styles of music in Mexico still remain popular today. Generally consisting of violins, trumpets, a classical guitar, vihuela, and guitarron, Mariac Bands play music in the Son Jaliscience style. One of the most popular traditional music styles in Mexico, Mariac is performed at parties, weddings, and quinceaneras, and has been exported around the world. In the north of Mexico, along the US border, German, Austrian, and Polish immigrants brought the accordion as well as new musical styles like waltz and polka. These styles, particularly the use of accordion, mixed with the Mexican folk music to create Norteño.Classical Music: As with other parts of the Kingdom of New Spain in the 18th century, classical music in Mexico was based on the classical music from Spain. The most distinguished composer in the Western Hemisphere during the 18th century, Manuel de Zumaya served as choirmaster of the Mexico City Cathedral for over 20 years. Considered a master of both Renaissance and Baroque styles, he was also the first person in the Western Hemisphere to write an Italian Opera. In the 1920’s a talented composer named Silvestre Revueltas was struggling to establish s career w le fighting alcoholism. In an effort to m, s friend Carlos Chavez got m appointed assistant conductor of the National Symphony Orchestra of Mexico. In addition to s conducting work, Revueltas job was to compose music and promote contemporary Mexican Classical Music. W le s music was a success, Silvestre gave in to drinking and died in poverty.Popular Music: Popular music in Mexico today starts with the traditional styles of Mariac and Norteño, Which remain popular, albeit with some slight modifications. Los Tigres del Norte, The Tigers of the North, started playing Norteño in the late 1960’s, have continued to update their music by mixing it with other genres and sounds, and have been successful not only in Mexico, but in the US as well. Like Norteño, Banda is also based on the polka music from Germany and Poland, but instead of using an accordion, a brass band is used. In addition to Traditional forms of music that remain popular today, Mexico also has a strong pop music tradition. The most popular Mexican pop musician over the past 30 years, Luis Miguel has earned mself the nickname “El Sol de México.” He is the only Latin artist to have 2 Spanish albums ac eve platinum status in the United States. s music is popular across the entire world, in fact when Saddam Hussein was captured in 2003, Luis Miguel’s album Segundo Romance was among s belongings.Extra Facts: The Guitarron and Vihuela are much deeper front to
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